Are overdue bills, harassing telephone calls from creditors, and threats of foreclosure causing you to lose sleep at night? An unexpected illness, loss of job, divorce, or other major life event can happen to anyone. Sometimes bad decisions people have made in the past surface in the form of financial difficulties.
At the Law Offices of Ed L. Laughlin, we help individuals file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy and Chapter 13 bankruptcy. If you are having financial difficulties and are in danger of losing your home and car, then you need attorney Ed Laughlin. Please contact our firm to arrange your free consultation.
Filing Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy will be dependent upon many factors, including whether or not you earn income. Chapter 7 is a liquidation of debt. Chapter 13 is a debt repayment plan that allows you to repay your debts over a three-to-five-year time frame. It is possible to save your house from foreclosure, save your car from repossession, put your mind at ease, and start over. Please contact our firm to discuss your options about filin bankruptcy.
We meet with our clients in an initial meeting. We encourage clients to fill out our bankruptcy form prior to this first meeting. In the meeting, attorney Laughlin can review the bankruptcy forms and discuss with clients the advisability of filing either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy. There may also be options that do not require filing bankruptcy.
A chapter 13 bankruptcy is also called a wage earner's plan. It enables individuals with regular income to develop a plan to repay all or part of their debts. Under this chapter, debtors propose a repayment plan to make installments to creditors over three to five years. If the debtor's current monthly income is less than the applicable state median, the plan will be for three years unless the court approves a longer period "for cause." If the debtor's current monthly income is greater than the applicable state median, the plan generally must be for five years. In no case may a plan provide for payments over a period longer than five years. During this time the law forbids creditors from starting or continuing collection efforts.
Chapter 13 offers individuals a number of advantages over liquidation under chapter 7. Perhaps most significantly, chapter 13 offers individuals an opportunity to save their homes from foreclosure. By filing under this chapter, individuals can stop foreclosure proceedings and may cure delinquent mortgage payments over time. Nevertheless, they must still make all mortgage payments that come due during the chapter 13 plan on time. Another advantage of chapter 13 is that it allows individuals to reschedule secured debts (other than a mortgage for their primary residence) and extend them over the life of the chapter 13 plan. Doing this may lower the payments. Chapter 13 also has a special provision that protects third parties who are liable with the debtor on "consumer debts." This provision may protect co-signers. Finally, chapter 13 acts like a consolidation loan under which the individual makes the plan payments to a chapter 13 trustee who then distributes payments to creditors.
A chapter 13 debtor is entitled to a discharge upon completion of all payments under the chapter 13 plan so long as the debtor: (1) certifies (if applicable) that all domestic support obligations that came due prior to making such certification have been paid; (2) has not received a discharge in a prior case filed within a certain time frame (two years for prior chapter 13 cases and four years for prior chapter 7, 11 and 12 cases); and (3) has completed an approved course in financial management.
A chapter 7 bankruptcy case does not involve the filing of a plan of repayment as in chapter 13. Instead, the bankruptcy trustee gathers and sells the debtor's nonexempt assets and uses the proceeds of such assets to pay holders of claims (creditors) in accordance with the provisions of the Bankruptcy Code. Part of the debtor's property may be subject to liens and mortgages that pledge the property to other creditors. In addition, the Bankruptcy Code will allow the debtor to keep certain "exempt" property; but a trustee will liquidate the debtor's remaining assets. Accordingly, potential debtors should realize that the filing of a petition under chapter 7 may result in the loss of property.
Filing a petition under chapter 7 "automatically stays" (stops) most collection actions against the debtor or the debtor's property. But filing the petition does not stay certain types of actions, and the stay may be effective only for a short time in some situations. The stay arises by operation of law and requires no judicial action. As long as the stay is in effect, creditors generally may not initiate or continue lawsuits, wage garnishments, or even telephone calls demanding payments. The bankruptcy clerk gives notice of the bankruptcy case to all creditors whose names and addresses are provided by the debtor.
A discharge releases individual debtors from personal liability for most debts and prevents the creditors owed those debts from taking any collection actions against the debtor. Because a chapter 7 discharge is subject to many exceptions, though, debtors should consult competent legal counsel before filing to discuss the scope of the discharge. Generally, excluding cases that are dismissed or converted, individual debtors receive a discharge in more than 99 percent of chapter 7 cases.
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